*Ben Brubaker, Daniel Bump, and Solomon Friedberg*

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691150659
- eISBN:
- 9781400838998
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691150659.003.0005
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Combinatorics / Graph Theory / Discrete Mathematics

This chapter introduces the Tokuyama's Theorem, first by writing the Weyl character formula and restating Schur polynomials, the values of the Whittaker function multiplied by the normalization ...
More

This chapter introduces the Tokuyama's Theorem, first by writing the Weyl character formula and restating Schur polynomials, the values of the Whittaker function multiplied by the normalization constant. The λ-parts of Whittaker coefficients of Eisenstein series can be profitably regarded as a deformation of the numerator in the Weyl character formula. This leads to deformations of the Weyl character formula. Tokuyama gave such a deformation. It is an expression of ssubscript Greek small letter lamda(z) as a ratio of a numerator to a denominator. The denominator is a deformation of the Weyl denominator, and the numerator is a sum over Gelfand-Tsetlin patterns with top row λ + ρ.Less

This chapter introduces the Tokuyama's Theorem, first by writing the Weyl character formula and restating Schur polynomials, the values of the Whittaker function multiplied by the normalization constant. The *λ*-parts of Whittaker coefficients of Eisenstein series can be profitably regarded as a deformation of the numerator in the Weyl character formula. This leads to deformations of the Weyl character formula. Tokuyama gave such a deformation. It is an expression of *s*subscript Greek small letter lamda(*z*) as a ratio of a numerator to a denominator. The denominator is a deformation of the Weyl denominator, and the numerator is a sum over Gelfand-Tsetlin patterns with top row λ + ρ.

*Ben Brubaker, Daniel Bump, and Solomon Friedberg*

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691150659
- eISBN:
- 9781400838998
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691150659.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Combinatorics / Graph Theory / Discrete Mathematics

Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, ...
More

Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series and develops their combinatorics. These interesting functions may be described as Whittaker coefficients of Eisenstein series on metaplectic groups, but this characterization doesn't readily lead to an explicit description of the coefficients. The coefficients may be expressed as sums over Kashiwara's crystals, which are combinatorial analogs of characters of irreducible representations of Lie groups. For Cartan Type A, there are two distinguished descriptions, and if these are known to be equal, the analytic properties of the Dirichlet series follow. Proving the equality of the two combinatorial definitions of the Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series requires the comparison of two sums of products of Gauss sums over lattice points in polytopes. Through a series of surprising combinatorial reductions, this is accomplished. The book includes expository material about crystals, deformations of the Weyl character formula, and the Yang–Baxter equation.Less

Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series and develops their combinatorics. These interesting functions may be described as Whittaker coefficients of Eisenstein series on metaplectic groups, but this characterization doesn't readily lead to an explicit description of the coefficients. The coefficients may be expressed as sums over Kashiwara's crystals, which are combinatorial analogs of characters of irreducible representations of Lie groups. For Cartan Type A, there are two distinguished descriptions, and if these are known to be equal, the analytic properties of the Dirichlet series follow. Proving the equality of the two combinatorial definitions of the Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series requires the comparison of two sums of products of Gauss sums over lattice points in polytopes. Through a series of surprising combinatorial reductions, this is accomplished. The book includes expository material about crystals, deformations of the Weyl character formula, and the Yang–Baxter equation.

*Ben Brubaker, Daniel Bump, and Solomon Friedberg*

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691150659
- eISBN:
- 9781400838998
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691150659.003.0020
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Combinatorics / Graph Theory / Discrete Mathematics

This chapter describes the properties of Kashiwara's crystal and its role in unipotent p-adic integrations related to Whittaker functions. In many cases, integrations of representation theoretic ...
More

This chapter describes the properties of Kashiwara's crystal and its role in unipotent p-adic integrations related to Whittaker functions. In many cases, integrations of representation theoretic import over the maximal unipotent subgroup of a p-adic group can be replaced by a sum over Kashiwara's crystal. Partly motivated by the crystal description presented in Chapter 2 of this book, this perspective was advocated by Bump and Nakasuji. Later work by McNamara and Kim and Lee extended this philosophy yet further. Indeed, McNamara shows that the computation of the metaplectic Whittaker function is initially given as a sum over Kashiwara's crystal. The chapter considers Kostant's generating function, the character of the quantized enveloping algebra, and its association with Kashiwara's crystal, along with the Kostant partition function and the Weyl character formula.Less

This chapter describes the properties of Kashiwara's crystal and its role in unipotent *p*-adic integrations related to Whittaker functions. In many cases, integrations of representation theoretic import over the maximal unipotent subgroup of a *p*-adic group can be replaced by a sum over Kashiwara's crystal. Partly motivated by the crystal description presented in Chapter 2 of this book, this perspective was advocated by Bump and Nakasuji. Later work by McNamara and Kim and Lee extended this philosophy yet further. Indeed, McNamara shows that the computation of the metaplectic Whittaker function is initially given as a sum over Kashiwara's crystal. The chapter considers Kostant's generating function, the character of the quantized enveloping algebra, and its association with Kashiwara's crystal, along with the Kostant partition function and the Weyl character formula.